Electrical Engineer Chuck Davis, began writing the computer code for ROSHI in 1988. His goal was to create a computer program that would imitate the process of being coached by a Zen master. Mr. Davis’ program trains the brain to reach and maintain the state of restful attentiveness that is the centerpiece of Zen Buddhism—and also the basis of Neurofeedback and Biofeedback: Mind over matter.
“Training on the ROSHI essentially is computer-assisted meditation. In traditional meditation the brain has to follow its own guidelines without feedback. This is why it takes effort and practice over many years. Much of the learning by the brain is done by trial and error. The ROSHI takes all the guesswork out of it. The overall amplitude is reduced as a result of this closed loop type of neurofeedback. The person trains for deeper and deeper states every session. For some, results are rapid, and the general benefits are the same as for long term meditation. For others, they may need several weeks or months of training to achieve similar results. Training is gentle, safe, and long lasting.” — Dr. Dan Staso
There have been three generations of ROSHI instruments and procedures.
In 1992, a company know as Advanced Neurotechnologies, Inc. was involved with training of Olympic and professional athletes using its BrainLink neurofeedback system, which incorporated the so-called Patton Protocol(1) This process, with its associated hardware and software, was licensed to RoshiCorp of Los Angeles for the manufacture and distribution of a fully integrated unit that would automatically implement the Patton Protocol. The resulting ROSHI system (ROSHI I) utilized an Amiga desktop computer and carried the BrainLink logo. It was featured in hundreds of publications, radio shows, and television programs worldwide. ROSHI/BrainLink training protocols for developing peak performance were used with athletes from many sports including karate, golf, baseball, ice-skating, and kayaking, and several controlled research studies were completed. In addition to the Patton protocol, there were some 20 other preprogramed protocols that could be explored, including enhance-or-inhibit protocols for beta, theta, alpha/theta, and synchrony training.
In 1995, ROSHI/BrainLink began to investigate Electroencephalography (EEG) (the recording of electrical activity along the scalp.) This new research came to involve EEG coupled with photostimulation (light) or electromagnetic stimulation (EM). We now refer to this as neurofeedback enhanced by light or electromagnetic closed-loop EEG (2) As initially used in the ROSHI I, this involved what we term the “discrete adaptive modality” of stimulation.(3) This refers to modification of brain electrical activity by use of program, which detects, follows, and discourages the dominant EEG frequency by use of photostimulation.
The Standalone/ROSHI II and II+ had a new configuration, which allowed the equipment to be used with or without the ROSHI computer-driven software.
ROSHI IN-SIGHT Glasses (Personal ROSHI, or pROSHI) are the newest in the ROSHI line and are by far the most flexible, and easy to use. Following the idea that a “good “ brain should be a flexible brain, its algorithms are based on a unique use of chaos theory. Light and EM waves are presented to the client in a standardized complex (adaptive) mode. This is designed to encourage the brain to imitate the sequence of frequencies presented by the ROSHI in a flexible, yet not abnormally variable manner. Therefore, the ROSHI uses the very advanced concept that the brain itself can become its own neurofeedback device, correcting its own internal errors, given the proper external (proprietary) neurostimulus.
ROSHI is the first neurofeedback instrument that uses EM as closed loop EEG-EM. Successful applications have included treatment of drug resistant sleep disorders, addictions, head injuries, and tremor. We now use EEG-EM at low energy levels. By lowering the EM field and keeping it between 2 and 10mGauss, the effects are more positive with no brain disturbances noted.
Since 2001, Dr. Ibric has had an opportunity to apply closed loop EEG-EM in several cases of Parkinson ‘s disease and sleep disorders. Such electromagnetic-enhanced neurofeedback seems to positively effect the functions of deeper structures of the brain such as the basal ganglia, interior olive, or pineal gland.
Most of the feedback modes embedded in the original ROSHI and subsequent programs are based on ideas and previous research of the following persons: Ochs (1992), Patton (1993, 1995), Peniston and Kulkowsky (1991), Lubar (1991), Green, Green, and Walters (1970), Pfurtscheller and Aranibar (1977), Cade and Coxhead (1989), Fried ( 1989), Tansey (1984), Tachiki, Ochs, and Weiler (1994), Gevins et al. (1979). The authors apologize if others have been inadvertently omitted form this list.
1) Patton 2) Victoria Ibric 3) Len Ochs